Tape or paint can be used as available.

This is not essential but may save time in an emergency

Consider marking the 4 reciprocal roof poles to assist assembly

Heavy sisal twine or rope can be used to lash the RSK bamboo poles together.

Environmental considerations may preclude using plastic ties or polypropylene twine .

The Sudan workshop found that rubber inner tubes cut in strips was most suitable for lashing bamboo poles together.

An advantage of the RSK is that the rope attachment points can all be worked on from the inside of the shelter after it has been erected.

In this example a small length (block) of bamboo is used to assist attachment but any rope or wire could be used.

The ropes need to be tied next to a node for maximum strength.

A small block of bamboo can be lashed to a pole to assist the rope attachment.

This block could be pre-cut and added to the kit or located the shelter is erected.

Interestingly this additional support is less important in the double shelter frame where the two inclined frames support each other.

The workshop in Sudan found that lashing these joints with strips of rubber provided sufficient support for the roof.

Consider using a short block of bamboo lashed to the vertical pole to provide support where strips of rubber are not available or heavy roof loads are anticipated.

Support blocks can be added after erection of the shelter if preferred.

This illustrates the ease of working with bamboo on this type of shelter.

In severe weather the frame roof can be lowered in less than 10 minutes.

This can be achieved with the bamboo RSK by pre-positioning a lower bamboo support block.

This increases the weight of the frame by 40% and is not necessary for the emergency shelter phase.

However if bamboo resources are plentiful it should be considered as a first step to building a more permanent shelter.

The research shows that replacing the two side ropes with bamboo reduces the maximum stress on the frame by 24%.

Replacing the bottom rope with bamboo made little difference to the strength of the frame.

Research has shown that a bamboo RSK roof can easily support a covering of reeds, branches or available foliage.

This can make the inside of the shelter over 20 degrees cooler than using a tarpaulin alone.

The implications of this are profound, especially for vulnerable groups in a disaster situation suffering from dehydration.

Elevating the lower edge of this reciprocal roof to improve head room actually improves its weight bearing ability.

The roof reaches its maximum strength when in a horizontal plane.

The ability of the RSK reciprocal frame roof to be changed from horizontal to an inclined position within minutes will keep families dry in heavy rain.

A pre-dug channel along one side of the shelter will ensure torrential rain runs away from the shelter avoiding any ground flooding .

Unlike conventional roofs, the reciprocal frame supports at the centre of the roof where it is needed most.

The collapsing of tarpaulin shelters in Haiti under the weight of heavy rain would not have occurred with a RSK roof.

The roof frame sectors deflect water away from the centre to prevent any build up.

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